Full details at https://lbnf.fnal.gov/
I was listening to Coast to Coast AM last night and they had Don Lincoln on as a guest. They talked about FERMILAB that was located in the Chicago area (Batavia, IL) and their plans with the Highest-Intensity Neutrino Beam on the Planet, literally going right under Rockford’s feet. From Batavia, Il to Lead, SD. So I thought I would do an article on it. Their scheduled date has not officially been released yet.
Below is from the Fermilab website at https://lbnf.fnal.gov/
Facility for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment
A global neutrino physics community is developing a leading-edge, dual-site experiment for neutrino science and proton decay studies, the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), hosted at Fermilab in Batavia, IL.
The facility required for this experiment, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), is an internationally designed, coordinated and funded program. Once it is completed, it will comprise the world’s highest-intensity neutrino beam, at Fermilab, and the infrastructure necessary to support massive, cryogenic far detectors installed deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), 800 miles (1,300 km) downstream, in Lead, SD. LBNF is also responsible for the facilities to house the experiment’s near detectors on the Fermilab site.
LBNF is tightly coordinated with the DUNE collaboration designing the detectors that will carry out its experimental program.
The DUNE Experiment and Collaboration
The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, conducted with the detectors installed in the LBNF facility, is expected to achieve transformative discoveries, making definitive determinations of neutrino properties, the dynamics of the supernovae that produced the heavy elements necessary for life, and the possibility of proton decay.
The DUNE scientific collaboration is responsible for designing, building and operating the detectors to do the experiment. The LBNF beamline, which will supply the required intense beam of neutrinos to the detectors at the near and far sites, builds on Fermilab’s existing world-class accelerator complex, including the Main Injector and the planned Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II).
Sending neutrinos on a 800 mi (1,300 km) journey
Neutrinos created by the LBNF beamline will travel 1,300 km (800 mi) to intercept DUNE’s massive, cutting-edge neutrino detector at the Sanford Lab. The neutrino beam’s path will lead straight through the earth’s mantle. Neutrinos pass easily through soil and rock — or kilometers of solid lead, for that matter — rarely interacting with the matter. No tunnel is needed for these ghostly particles.
How do we know this is safe?
Neutrinos are among the most abundant particles in the universe, a billion times more abundant than the particles that make up stars, planets and people. Each second, a trillion neutrinos from the sun and other celestial objects pass harmlessly and unnoticed through your body — and everything else. Although neutrinos are all around us, they interact so rarely with other matter that they are very difficult to observe, and consequently, they are completely harmless.
An Environmental Assessment conducted for the LBNF/DUNE project is available; it includes results from an investigation of potential impacts to human health and the environment from the construction and operation of the technical and civil facilities, and finds that the project will have no significant environmental or health-related impacts.
This 4-page LBNF/DUNE Fact Sheet provides a summary of the proposed project.
The DOE initiated the environmental assessment in May 2013 and released the draft environmental assessment in June 2015 for public comment. Public meetings were held in Illinois and in South Dakota. In October 2015, the DOE issued the final environmental assessment and determined that the LBNF/DUNE project will have no significant impact. The signed Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) document is also included in the final environmental assessment document as Appendix H.
The Environmental Assessment process
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was signed into law in 1970. It sets forth protection of the environment as a U.S. policy and requires that all federal agencies consider the potential environmental impacts of proposed projects. NEPA establishes a framework to ensure that environmental factors receive appropriate consideration along with economic and technical factors in federal agency decision-making.
Preparation of the LBNF/DUNE Environmental Assessment
With the help of a number of technical experts, including independent consultants assisted by Fermilab and Sanford Lab staff, DOE prepared a Draft Environmental Assessment to determine what impacts LBNF/DUNE construction and operation might have on human health and environment. On June 8, 2015, the Department of Energy released its Draft Environmental Assessment and shared the information with local residents, public officials and the media. The public comment period ran from June 8, 2015, to July 10, 2015. Public meetings were held on June 17 in Lead, South Dakota, June 18 in Rapid City, South Dakota, and June 24 in Batavia, Illinois.
The final Environmental Assessment document (50 MB pdf file) includes a statement of project purpose and need, a description of the proposed project and alternatives, a description of the current environment, and an analysis of potential impacts to the air, sound, water, soil, safety, traffic flow and other areas of potential impact. It also includes a summary of the comments received. Opportunities to mitigate potential negative impacts will be integrated into the final project plans.
In addition to posting documents on this website, the final Environmental Assessment document and the associated Findings of No Significant Impact document have been made available to the public via mail, libraries and reading rooms as well as electronic media.
Highest-Intensity Neutrino Beam on the Planet
Supplying neutrinos to DUNE
A neutrino is an elementary particle that is at least a million times lighter than an electron and has no electric charge. Neutrinos are harmless particles that are among the most abundant — yet least understood — in the universe; they are a billion times more abundant than the particles that make up stars, planets and people. These tiny particles have no electric charge and mostly pass right through the empty space in the atoms that make up ordinary matter, very rarely interacting with it. Therefore, not only are they harmless, but very challenging to observe!
Watch this short video that explains why neutrinos can pass through solid objects.
Experiments carried out over the past half century have revealed that neutrinos are found in three states, or flavors, and can transform from one flavor into another. (Each flavor is associated with a charged particle: an electron, or one of its heavier and unstable cousins, a muon or tau.) These results offer the most compelling evidence to date for physics beyond the Standard Model. In a single experiment enabled by LBNF’s high-intensity neutrino source, generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator, DUNE will conduct a broad exploration of the three-flavor model of neutrino physics with unprecedented detail. The 800 mi (1,300 km) separation (“baseline”) between the neutrino source and the far detector delivers optimal sensitivity to this physics.
The Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) will build on an already extensively developed plan for a beamline and related facilities to support this world-class experiment. How do you make a neutrino beam?
The Standard Model particles; the Greek letter ν (nu) is used to represent neutrinos.
Neutrinos were created in vast numbers just after the Big Bang and were virtually alone in their ability to penetrate the early dense universe. These tiny particles are therefore crucial to understanding the origins of our universe. The discovery that neutrinos have mass, contrary to what was previously thought, has revolutionized our understanding of neutrinos in the last two decades while raising new questions about matter, energy, space and time. Neutrinos may play a key role in solving the mystery of how the universe came to consist of matter rather than antimatter. They could also unveil new, exotic physical processes that have so far been beyond our reach.
Cartoon of beamline components and particles produced at each stage.
Using Fermilab’s Main Injector accelerator as a proton source, the Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility’s beamline is expected to make the highest-intensity neutrino beam in the world – i.e., the most highly concentrated beam of these particles that travel at nearly the speed of light.
Cartoon of planned LBNF Beamline
The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), a proposed facility for Fermilab that would significantly increase the number of protons the Main Injector could supply, would provide increased intensity for LBNF’s neutrino beam.
The old Homestake Mine in Lead, SD, now the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Courtesy Homestake Adams Research and Cultural Center
The neutrinos will travel 1,300 km from Illinois (the near site) to South Dakota (the far site) through the earth’s mantle. The DUNE science collaboration will provide massive underground detectors at the far site to record neutrinos and study their properties with unprecedented precision. Smaller detectors at the near site will collect data that will enhance the performance of the overall experiment as well as make independent measurements and conduct sensitive searches for new physics.
How do you make a neutrino beam?
Watch this short video that explains the neutrino-making process.
The process starts by extracting a proton beam from an accelerator complex and smashing the protons into a target. The protons’ interactions with the protons and neutrons in the target material produce new, short-lived particles such as pions and kaons. These particles travel a short distance (about 200 m) through a “decay pipe,” and as they do, a good fraction of them decays into neutrinos that continue on in the same direction, forming a neutrino beam. Of the three known neutrino types, a beam produced in this manner contains mostly muon neutrinos.
Using Fermilab’s Main Injector accelerator as a proton source, the proposed LBNF beamline will be able to make the highest-intensity neutrino beam in the world.
Like the beam of light produced by a flashlight, the beam of neutrinos produced by an accelerator widens over distance. To make sure that a sufficiently large number of neutrinos hits the particle detector, located hundreds of miles away, the beam must be highly concentrated, highly focused and aimed precisely in the right direction. Because neutrinos have no electric charge, there is no way to change the direction of a neutrino once it has been created.
City of Lead Public Meeting, March 2017
LBNF Update, Josh Willhite (powerpoint) (pdf)
Sanford Lab Update, Mike Headley (powerpoint) (pdf)
Establishing the Project
The LBNF project was born out of an effort to unify and pool resources from previously distinct neutrino physics efforts and interested partners from around the world. Its goal is to enable the construction and operation of a single international experiment with the highest possible sensitivity to a set of potentially ground-breaking physics measurements. LBNF was formed in response to the conclusions of the 2014 report of the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5), a body that conducts strategic planning for U.S. particle physics in a global context.
The former LBNE project and experiment, funded by the U.S. DOE, was one of the leaders in this internationalization effort. In January 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) had approved LBNE’s Mission Need, a milestone known as Critical Decision-0 (CD-0). In December 2012 LBNE achieved CD-1, at which the DOE approved its conceptual design for a more limited scope than what is now envisioned for the combined LBNF and DUNE projects.
Another leader, LAGUNA-LBNO, was an EU funded design study supported by CERN and APPEC to assess the feasibility of a next-generation deep underground observatory to study long-baseline neutrinos. It was the continuation of the LAGUNA project, competed in 2010, and focused on two key questions: (1) the cost of constructing and operating such a facility and (2) the detector technologies and baselines most suitable to study neutrino oscillations in Europe. The consortium put forward the expression of interest LBNO to CERN in 2012 and a conceptual design report was submitted in 2014.
The LBNF Project is an independent entity within the Fermilab organizational structure reporting directly to the Fermilab Director. The laboratory Deputy Director for LBNF is responsible for the Project and serves as LBNF Project Director. The LBNF Project encompasses a Project Office and two laboratory divisions: the LBNF Project Far-Site Facilities Division, responsible for all Project activities at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in South Dakota, and the LBNF Project Near-Site Facilities Division, responsible for all Project activities at Fermilab. The Far-Site Facilities Division manages the Cryogenic Infrastructure and Far-Site Conventional Facilities, while the Near-Site Facilities Division manages the Beamline and Near-Site Facilities. These divisions bring together the engineering and technical resources needed to advance the designs and construction activities associated with the subprojects.
International Management Model
The successful model used by CERN for managing the construction and exploitation of the LHC and its experiments has been adopted as a starting point for the joint management of the LBNF and DUNE projects. Fermilab, as the host laboratory, takes on the responsibility for the oversight of both the LBNF and DUNE projects. Mechanisms to ensure input from and coordination among all of the international funding agencies supporting collaboration, modeled on the CERN Resource Review Board, are being adopted. A similar structure, an International Joint Advisory Committee, chaired by the DOE Office of High Energy Physics, will be employed to coordinate among funding agencies supporting the LBNF and DUNE construction and operation.
Source and Full Details at https://lbnf.fnal.gov/
For more information:
LBNF/DUNE NEPA Compliance Officer
U.S. Department of Energy
Batavia, IL 60510
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